Later manuscripts add accents to make it unambiguously Junias, however while "Junia" was a common name, "Junias" was not  , and both options are favoured by different Bible translations. In the second view, it is believed that Paul is simply making mention of the outstanding character of these two people which was acknowledged by the apostles.
Historically it has been virtually impossible to tell which of the two views were correct. The second view, in recent years, has been defended from a scholarly perspective by Daniel Wallace and Michael Burer. John names her as the "one who had anointed the Lord with perfumed oil and dried his feet with her hair" In Luke, an unidentified "sinner" in the house of a Pharisee anoints Jesus' feet. Luke refers to a number of people accompanying Jesus and the twelve.
From among them he names three women: Mary Magdalene and Joanna are among the women who went to prepare Jesus' body in Luke's account of the resurrection, and who later told the apostles and other disciples about the empty tomb and words of the "two men in dazzling clothes". Mary Magdalene is the most well-known of the disciples outside of the Twelve.
More is written in the gospels about her than the other female followers. There is also a large body of lore and literature covering her. Other gospel writers differ as to which women witness the crucifixion and witness to the resurrection. John includes Mary the wife of Clopas at the crucifixion. The "seventy disciples" or "seventy-two disciples" known in the Eastern Christian traditions as the "Seventy Apostles" were early emissaries of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text.
In Western Christianity , they are usually referred to as disciples ,  whereas in Eastern Christianity they are usually referred to as Apostles. The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous: Although the Gospel of John is anonymous,  [ incomplete short citation ] Christian tradition historically has attributed it to John the Apostle , son of Zebedee and one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles.
The gospel is so closely related in style and content to the three surviving Johannine epistles that commentators treat the four books,  [ incomplete short citation ] along with the Book of Revelation , as a single corpus of Johannine literature , albeit not necessarily written by the same author. The Gospel of Mark was written anonymously. AD 66—70, during Nero 's persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt, as suggested by internal references to war in Judea and to persecution.
According to Church tradition, Luke the Evangelist , the companion of Paul, is believed to have authored the Gospel of Luke , though anonymously written and lacking an author's name; but while this view is still occasionally put forward the scholarly consensus emphasises the many contradictions between Acts and the authentic Pauline letters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Disciple Christianity.
For the general concept meaning a messenger and ambassador, see Apostle. For other uses, see Apostle disambiguation. For other uses, see Twelve Apostles disambiguation. Jesus in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection. Commissioning of the Twelve Apostles.
I Corinthians II Corinthians. I Thessalonians II Thessalonians. Lost epistles Apocalypse of Paul. Coptic Apocalypse of Paul. Corinthians to Paul Acts of Paul. Paul and Thecla Peter and Paul. Apostle Christian Pauline Christianity. Gospel and Synoptic Gospels. This section may stray from the topic of the article. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page.
See Bingham, Dwight Jeffrey The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Hence the lists of Jesus' twelve apostles contains 14 names not 12; the 4 Greek names are Andrew , Philip , Thaddaeus and Lebbaeus. Meier 's A Marginal Jew. The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire. In the time of Tertullian and Clemens of Alexandria the glory of martyrdom was confined to St. It was gradually bestowed on the rest of the apostles by the more recent Greeks, who prudently selected for the theatre of their preaching and sufferings some remote country beyond the limits of the Roman empire.
A Blast From the Past, ehrmanblog. Candida Moss marshals the historical evidence to prove that "we simply don't know how any of the apostles died, much less whether they were martyred. The Myth of Persecution: Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend.
Oxford University Press, US.
- THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES?
- Extraordinary Gospel: Experiencing the Goodness of God.
- Angels Fight Dirty (Clan McKee Intrigue Series Book 1).
Wallace and Michael H. Burer, "Was Junia Really an Apostle? They are commonly identified with the seventy-two seventy, according to the received Greek text, although several Greek manuscripts mention seventy-two, as does the Vulgate referred to Luke Four Courts Press, Communicating God's Word to the World.
The Gospel of Matthew and its Readers: A Historical Introduction to the First Gospel. Indiana University Press, David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. The Gospel According to Matthew: The Good News According to Matthew. John Knox Press, The Meaning of "Fishers of Men".
Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Language of Jesus Bibliography Films. Retrieved from " https: Biblical apostles 1st-century Christianity Articles about multiple people Bible-related lists of people Christian religious occupations Christian missions Christian terminology New Testament Greek words and phrases New Testament people Religious leadership roles.
History of the Apostles
Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Assyrian. Part of a series of articles on. Authorship Paul the Apostle. See also Apostle Christian Pauline Christianity. Andrew "his [Peter's] brother". James "son of Zebedee ". Thomas "also called Didymus" . Matthew "the publican ". James "son of Alphaeus ". Judas "son of James, referred to as brother in some translations". Jude "not Iscariot" .
The theme of God's visitation and universal offer of salvation through Jesus Christ is first expressed in the Gospel of Luke through Zechariah Luke 1: The traditional promise of a Savior for all of humanity is fulfilled in Christ, who desires salvation for Israel and all Gentiles Luke 3: There is a narrative unity to Luke and Acts, for the mission of Jesus in Luke and his disciples in Acts is to carry out the "Purpose of God," a concept expressed in Luke 4: Jesus tells the people of Capernaum that "I must preach the good news of the kingdom of God to the other cities also, for I was sent for this purpose" Luke 4: Luke's Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles are key to the description of the history and mission of the early Church.
The Acts of the Apostles is an exciting narrative and may be enjoyably read in one sitting. The Acts of the Apostles begins with Jesus Christ instructing the Apostles for 40 days following his Resurrection and commissioning them to be his witnesses to the ends of the earth Acts 1: Our English word martyr is a direct translation of the Greek word for witness. The martyr is the ultimate Christian witness! The Acts of the Apostles describes the infancy period of the early Christian Church , a time when Christianity spread like wildfire.
The emergence of Christianity is primarily seen through the actions of Peter, actually the first Apostle to bring Christianity to the Gentiles, and Paul, with his four missionary journeys - three from Antioch and his voyage to Malta and Rome. Following the Pentecost 2: There are four speeches by Peter: Chapter 8 opens with the severe persecution of the Church in Jerusalem and the subsequent dispersion throughout Judea and Samaria. Chapter 9 depicts the Conversion of Saul on the road to Damascus, when Jesus identified himself with the Church. Chapters 10 to 12 detail the inauguration of the mission to the Gentiles: Peter's conversion of Cornelius in Caesarea 10 , the mission led by Barnabas to the dispersion and Hellenists in Antioch 11 , followed by Herod's persecution of James and Peter Chapters record the first missionary journey of Barnabas, Saul, and John Mark to Cyprus, concluding with the Council of Jerusalem.
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Chapter 16 records the introduction of Christianity into Europe. Paul continues to gain converts among the Gentiles but suffers rejection and persecution in the synagogues. Paul returned to Ephesus in Asia Minor on his third missionary journey, where he spent a total of three years Acts In his Farewell meeting with the Church of Ephesus on his return to Jerusalem, Paul repeats a saying of Jesus not found in the four Gospels: Paul is on trial in Chapters for his belief in the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead, but also because he considers this as the fulfillment of the "hope in the promise made by God to our fathers.
Chapters narrate Paul's fourth missionary journey through Malta to Rome. Paul arrives in Rome and spends two years there under house arrest preaching the Gospel. The Holy Spirit is named 40 times in Acts, more than any other book of the Bible. Peter laid his hands and bestowed the Holy Spirit in Acts 8: The Holy Spirit directed Peter to accompany the emissaries sent by Cornelius The Holy Spirit called for Barnabas and Saul before they began the first missionary journey Paul also laid his hands and bestowed the Holy Spirit in Acts Antioch, Syria was an early home of Christianity after the dispersion, and especially after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 AD.
Indeed the followers of Jesus were first called Christians in Antioch Acts Followers of Jesus were also referred to as Nazarenes Acts Barnabas and Saul on the first missionary journey to Cyprus and Asia Minor appreciated that the Gospel of salvation be spoken first to the Jews but that the Gentiles were open to the message of Jesus Christ Acts The Council of Jerusalem resolved the important issue on Gentile converts - Peter and the Council supported Paul and Barnabas in allowing Gentile converts to become Christians without subjecting themselves to all the precepts of the Mosaic law.
This issue would continue to create dissension within the early Church, as we can see in reading Paul's Letters to the Galatians and Romans. The Council also served as the precedent for future Councils of the Christian Church. As Paul was directed to Rome by the Lord himself in Acts Paul fulfilled Christ's mission given in Luke In contrast to Jonah, who was running from the Lord and imperiled the safety of the ship, Paul was obedient to the Lord and saved the lives of all on board! There is a lesson here: Malta is an important aspect of the narrative, for the natives there representing the Gentiles were receptive to Paul's mission.
Publius, the chief man of the island, became a convert and the first Bishop of Malta. This is in contrast to the Jews of Rome, who, while individually may have been responsive to the Word, as a group rejected Paul's message. The climax occurs in Rome, when Paul, after continued rejection by the Jews This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, will come in just the same way as you have watched Him go into heaven. Jesus the Nazarene, a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst, just as you yourselves know - 23 this Man, delivered over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put Him to death.
History of the Apostles
And the Lord was adding to their number day by day those who were being saved. For the fact that a noteworthy miracle has taken place through them is apparent to all who live in Jerusalem, and we cannot deny it. And after it was sold, was it not under your control? Why is it that you have conceived this deed in your heart? You have not lied to men but to God. Behold, the feet of those who have buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out as well.
Now when the high priest and his associates came, they called the Council together, even all the Senate of the sons of Israel, and sent orders to the prison house for them to be brought. But he was killed, and all who followed him were dispersed and came to nothing. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran, 3 and said to him, 'Leave your country and your relatives, and come into the land that I will show you.
From there, after his father died, God had him move to this country in which you are now living. Yet God was with him, 10 and rescued him from all his afflictions, and granted him favor and wisdom in the sight of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and he made him governor over Egypt and all his household.
I also will remove you beyond Babylon. They killed those who had previously announced the coming of the Righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become; 53 you who received the law as ordained by angels, and yet did not keep it. And on that day a great persecution began against the church in Jerusalem, and they were all scattered throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, except the apostles.
For His life is removed from the earth. Of himself or of someone else? What prevents me from being baptized? Now for several days he was with the disciples who were at Damascus, 20 and immediately he began to proclaim Jesus in the synagogues, saying, "He is the Son of God. They were also watching the gates day and night so that they might put him to death; 25 but his disciples took him by night and let him down through an opening in the wall, lowering him in a large basket.